Thermodynamics overview. [tln2]

Preliminary list of state variables. [tln1]

Physical constants. [tsl47]

Equations of state. [tln78]

Equation of state for ideal gas and real fluid. [tsl12]

Classification of thermodynamic systems. Laws of thermodynamics. [tln10]

Thermodynamic processes (irreversible, quasi-static, adiabatic). [tln79]

Exact differentials. Applications to internal energy and entropy. [tln14]

Maximum efficiency. [tln12]

Absolute temperature. [tln13]

Reversible processes in fluid systems. [tln15]

Work extracted from finite heat reservoir in infinite environment. [tex9]

Work extracted from finite heat reservoir in finite environment. [tex10]

Heating the air in a room. [tex2]

Gasoline engine. [tln65]

Diesel engine. [tln66]

Idealized Diesel engine. [tex16]

Escher-Wyss gas turbine. [tln75]

Idealized Stirling cycle.

Free energy. [tln3]

Legendre transform. [tln77]

Thermodynamic potentials. [tln4]

Alternative set of thermodynamic potentials. [tln9]

Thermodynamic functions. [tln5]

Maxwell's relations. [tln17]

Free energy stored and retrieved. [tln18]

Useful relations between partial derivatives. [tln6]

Response functions (thermal, mechanical, magnetic). [tln7] (2)

Isothermal and adiabatic processes in fluid systems and magnetic systems. [tln8]

Conditions for thermal equilibrium. [tln19]

Stability of thermal equilibrium. [tln20]

Jacobi transformation. [tln21]

Entropy of mixing. [tln25]

Osmotic pressure. [tln26]

Thermodynamic potentials of the classical ideal gas. [tex15]

Chemical potential of the classical ideal gas. [tex17]

Ideal gas heat capacity by design. [tex35]

Sound velocity in the classical ideal gas I. [tex18]

Sound velocity in the classical ideal gas II. [tex99]

Absolute temperature from measurements. [tex134]

Polytropic process of classical ideal gas. [tex138]

Van der Waals equation of state. [tln22]

Cooling gases: Joule effect (free expansion) and Joule-Thomson effect (throttling). [tln23]

Joule-Thomson inversion curves. [tsl1]

Heat capacities of the van der Waals gas. [tex27]

Internal energy and entropy of the van der Waals gas. [tex38]

Joule coefficient of the van der Waals gas. [tex31]

Joule-Thomson coefficient of the van der Waals gas. [tex32]

Assembling thermodynamic information. [tex29]

How not to modify the ideal gas equation of state. [tex11]

Reconstructing the equation of state of a fluid system. [tex42]

Reconstructing the equation of state of a gas. [tex43]

Effects of first virial correction on ideal gas properties. [tex33]

Entropy due to electronic spins in iron ammonium alum. [tsl2]

Adiabatic demagnetization. [tln24]

Thermodynamics of an ideal paramagnet I. [tex19]

Thermodynamics of an ideal paramagnet II. [tex20]

Thermodynamics of an ideal paramagnet III. [tex21]

Thermodynamics of a real paramagnet. [tex36]

Thermodynamics of a classical ideal paramagnetic gas I. [tex22]

Thermodynamics of a classical ideal paramagnetic gas II. [tex133]

Equation of state and adiabate of an elastic band. [tex40]

Determining C

Thermodynamics of blackbody radiation. [tex23]

Carnot cycle of thermal radiation. [tex24]

Phase diagram of H

Ferrimagnetic phases. [tsl49]

Liquid crystal phases. [tsl51]

Ordering of surfactant molecules. [tsl50]

Phase coexistence: Gibbs phase rule. [tln27]

Classification of phase transitions. [tln28]

Gibbs free energy and derivatives at discontinuous transition. [tsl7]

Gibbs free energy and derivatives at continuous transition. [tsl8]

Clausius-Clapeyron equation. [tln29]

Entropy of a supercooled liquid. [tex30]

Coexistence line of continuous phase transition. [tex37]

Heat capacity of vapor in equilibrium with liquid phase. [tex41]

Discontinuous transition: change in internal energy. [tex123]

Dry ice. [tex125]

Abnormal phase behavior. [tex54]

Melting or freezing. [tex51]

Triple-point phase changes. [tex52]

Law of corresponding states. [tln30]

Maxwell construction. [tln31]

Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies of the van der Waals fluid at T<T

Condensation and evaporation. [tln32]

Dieterici equation of state. [tex34]

Helium liquids. [tln33]

Phase diagram of

Phase diagram of

Exotic properties of helium II. [tln34]

Superconducting transition. [tln35]

Thermodynamics of a ferromagnet. [tsl5]

Structural transitions of iron. [tex53]

Latent heat and heat capacities at superconducting transition. [tex44]

Thermodynamics of the mean-field ferromagnet I. [tex45]

Thermodynamics of the mean-field ferromagnet II. [tex46]

Statistical concept of uncertainty. [tex47]

Statistical uncertainty and information. [tln37]

Statistical uncertainty and information. [tex48]

Information of sequenced messages. [tex61]

Kinetics of classical ideal gas. [tsl28]

Pressure and mean square velocity in classical ideal gas. [tex49]

Maxwell velocity distribution. [tln38]

Maxwell velocity distribution (Maxwell's derivation). [tex50]

Maxwell distribution in D-dimensional space. [tex56]

Boltzmannn equation. [tln39]

Boltzmann's H-theorem. [tln40]

Energy distribution for N ideal gas atoms. [tex57]

Maxwell velocity distribution (Boltzmann's derivation). [mex58]

Ideal-gas entropy and Boltzmann's H-function. [tex59]

H-theorem and entropy. [tln41]

Boltzmann's H-function simulated. [tsl27]

Maxwell distribution derived from minimizing the H-function. [tex60]

Doppler broadening of atomic spectral lines. [tex63]

Toward thermal equilibrium via particle transfer. [tex64]

Isotope separation via diffusion. [tex65]

Kinematic pressure and interaction pressure. [tln42]

Interaction pressure produced by Gaussian interparticle potential. [tex66]

Kinetic forces and mobility. [tln43]

Average force of particle beam on heavy hard sphere. [tex68]

Mobility of a hard sphere in a dilute gas. [tex69]

Collision rate and mean free path. [tln44]

Collision rate in classical ideal gas. [tex70]

Mean free path of particle in classical ideal gas. [tex71]

Rate of chemical reaction A + A -> A_2 in gas phase. [tex67]

Effect of escaping particles on temperature of 1D ideal gas. [tex72]

Classical Liouville operator. [tln46]

Quantum Liouville operator. [tln47]

Gibbs entropy. [tln48]

Microcanonical ensemble. [tln49]

Classical ideal gas (microcanonical ensemble). [tex73]

Array of classical harmonic oscillators (microcanonical ensemble). [tex74]

Quantum harmonic oscillators (microcanocal ensemble I). [tex75]

Quantum harmonic oscillators (microcanocal ensemble II). [tex126]

Quantum paramagnet (microcanonical ensemble). [tex127]

Entropy of mixing revisited. [tln50]

Classical ideal gas (canonical ensemble). [tex76]

Ultrarelativistic classical ideal gas (canonical idela gas). [tex77]

Array of classical harmonic oscillators (canonical ensemble). [tex78]

Irreversible decompression. [tex136]

Irreversible heat exchange. [tex137]

Reversible decompression. [tex139]

Reversible heat exchange. [tex140]

Ensemble averages. [tln52]

Classical virial theorem. [tln83]

Systems of noninteracting particles. [tln54]

Further ensemble averages. [tln55]

Classical ideal gas in a uniform gravitational field. [tex79]

Gas pressure and density inside centrifuge. [tex135]

Relative momentum of two ideal gas particles. [tex80]

Partition function and density of states. [tln56]

Ideal gas partition function and density of states. [tex81]

Vibrational heat capacities of solids. [tln57]

Array of quantum harmonic oscillators (canonical ensemble). [tex82]

Vibrational heat capacities of solids (Debye theory). [tsl29]

Thermodynamic perturbation expansion. [tln80]

Vibrational heat capacity of a solid. [tex83]

Anharmonic oscillator and thermodynamic perturbation. [tex104]

Paramagnetic salts. [tsl30]

Fluctuations in a magnetic system. [tln53]

Classical paramagnet (canonical ensemble). [tex84]

Quantum paramagnet (two-level system). [tex85]

Quantum paramagnet (Brillouin function). [tex86]

Negative temperatures. [tsl31]

Gases with internal degrees of freedom. [tln59]

Classical rotational free energy of NH

Classical rotational entropy of HCl and N

Quantum rotational heat capacity of a gas at low temperature. [tex89]

Quantum rotational heat capacity of a gas at high temperature. [tex90]

Rotational and vibrational heat capacities. [tsl32]

Orthohydrogen and parahydrogen. [tln81]

Relativistic classical ideal gas (canonical partition function). [tex91]

Relativistic classical ideal gas (entropy and internal energy). [tex92]

Relativistic classical ideal gas (heat capacity). [tex93]

Relativistic classical ideal gas (heat capacity). [tsl34]

Classical ideal gas (grandcanonical ensemble). [tex94]

Density fluctuations and compressibility [tln61]

Density fluctuations in the grand canonical ensemble. [tex95]

Density fluctuations and compressibility in the classical ideal gas. [tex96]

Energy fluctuations and thermal response functions. [tex103]

Microscopic states of quantum ideal gases. [tln62]

Partition function of quantum ideal gases. [tln63]

Ideal quantum gases: grand potential and thermal averages. [tln64]

Ideal quantum gases: average level occupancies. [tsl35]

Occupation number fluctuations. [tex110]

Density of energy levels for ideal quantum gas. [tex111]

Maxwell-Boltzmann gas in D dimensions. [tex112]

Ideal Bose-Einstein gas: equation of state and internal energy. [tln67]

BE gas in D dimensions I: fundamental relations. [tex113]

Reference values for T, V/N, and p. [tln71]

Bose-Einstein condensation. [tsl38]

Ideal Bose-Einstein gas: isochores. [tsl39]

BE gas in D dimensions II: isochore. [tex114]

BE gas in D dimensions III: isotherm and isobar. [tex115]

Bose-Einstein gas: isotherms. [tsl40]

Bose-Einstein gas: isobars. [tsl48]

Bose-Einstein gas: phase diagram. [tln72]

Bose-Einstein heat capacity. [tsl41]

BE gas in D dimensions IV: heat capacity at high temperature. [tex97]

BE gas in D dimensions V: heat capacity at low temperature. [tex116]

BE gas in D dimensions VI: isothermal compressibility. [tex128]

BE gas in D dimensions VII: isobaric expansivity. [tex129]

BE gas in D dimensions VIII: speed of sound. [tex130]

Ultrarelativistic Bose-Einstein gas. [tex98]

Blackbody radiation. [tln68]

Statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. [tex105]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: equation of state and internal energy. [tln69]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: chemical potential. [tsl43]

FD gas in D dimensions: chemical potential I. [tex117]

FD gas in D dimensions: chemical potential II. [tex118]

Ideal Fermi-dirac gas: average level occupancy. [tsl44]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: isochores I. [tsl46]

FD gas in D dimensions: statistical interaction pressure. [tex119]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: isotherms. [tln70]

FD gas in D dimensions: isotherm and adiabate. [tex120]

FD gas in D dimensions: ground-state energy. [tex102]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: heat capacity. [tsl45]

FD gas in D dimensions: heat capacity at high temperature. [tex100]

FD gas in D dimensions: heat capacity at low temperature. [tex101]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: isochores II. [tln73]

Ideal Fermi-Dirac gas: phase diagram in infinite dimensions. [tln74]

Stable white dwarf. [tex121]

Unstable white dwarf. [tex122]

- L. E. Reichl:
*A modern course in statistical physics.*Wiley-Interscience, New York 1998. - D. Chandler:
*Introduction to Modern statistical mechanics.*Oxford University Press 1987 - C. Garrod:
*Statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.*Oxford University Press 1995. - W. Greiner, L. Neise, and H. Stoecker:
*Thermodyamics and statistical mechanics.*Springer-Verlag, New York 1995. - M. Plischke and B. Bergersen:
*Equilibrium statistical physics.*World Scientific 1994. - K. Huang:
*Statistical mechanics.*Wiley, New York 1987. - L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz:
*Statistical physics 1.*Pergamon, New York 1980. - R. K. Pathria:
*Statistical mechanics.*Pergamon, New York 1972. - J. M. Yeomans: Statistical mechanics of phase transitions. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992.
- F. Schwabl: Statistical mechanics. Springer-Verlag, New York 2006.
- A. H. Carter:
*Classical and statistic**al thermodynamics*. Prentice-Hall 2001. - R. Kubo:
*Thermodynamics*. North-Holland 1968. - I. Prigogine:
*From**b**eing to**b**ecoming*. Freeman 1980. - J. Crangle:
*The magnetic properties of solids*. Arnold 1977.

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Last updated 11/19/15